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 大学院申し込み IOEの巻 その2

:: 2011/02/09(Wed) ::

課題その1:エッセイ:インクルージョンについて書かれた文献を読み、自分がどう思うのか、またインクルージョンを推進していく際に必要なことや問題点について参考文献と経験から書きなさい。

課題その2:リサーチクリティーク:障害をもった子どもの親たちに行ったアンケートからの研究論文で、この研究が的確に行われているかどうか述べよ。

という課題。正直、頭の中が「????」でいっぱいでした。
特に、課題その2の方は、研究論文を読んでいても全く理解できず、何と、10ページもある論文を日本語に全部訳してしまいましたよ~。おまけに「リサーチクリティーク」って何のことかも理解していなかったし。

一応、必死になって仕上げ(この時が私の人生で一番勉強した時じゃないか、と思うくらい。机に向かっていて気が付くと何時間も経っていたという経験を初めてしました(笑))、友人もチェックしてくれ、これならば大丈夫だろうと思い提出しました。

4週間後に結果が出るとのこと。この4週間って長い~~~。(また次回に続く)

今回、恥ずかしながら、課題その1のエッセイをそのまま載せておきました。興味のある方は READ MORE をクリックしてね。これも記念(笑)。


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Over the last two decades, inclusion has been the subject of controversy in education. Before this concept became firmly settled in the centre of education, 'integration' was encouraged by the Warnock Report (1978), in which integration was described as 'a way of bringing children with special educational needs into the community of mainstream schools'. This comprised locational integration, social integration or functional integration. Later, special educational needs (SEN) were seen as a continuum (Kettle 2004), and additional or supplementary support was introduced more into mainstream schools. As the number of the pupils with SEN grew in mainstream schools, an unreconstructed curriculum had been controversial, and subsequent changes brought new opportunities to previously excluded children (Carpenter et al. 1996). In addition to this, from the standpoint of human rights and equality, the segregation of children from their peers is not acceptable. The Salamanca Statement issued on principles, policy and practice on SEN stated that:
Inclusion and participation are essential to human dignity and to the enjoyment and exercise of human rights. Within the field of education this is reflected in the development of strategies that seek to bring about a genuine equalisation of opportunity.
Also UNESCO called on governments 'To adopt the principle of inclusive education, enrolling all children in regular schools unless there are compelling reasons for doing otherwise.' (UNESCO 1994)
In 1997 the DfEE Green Paper Excellence for All supported the move from segregated to mainstream education for more children. Since the SEN and Disability Act 2001 was enforced, the circumstances surrounding the children with SEN, schools, and society have been dramatically changing. In the act it states that 'mainstream schools will no longer be able to refuse a place to a child with SEN on the basis that the school cannot meet the pupil's needs.' The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (2002) emphasised that 'the Salamanca Statement was a clear commitment to "education for all" within the mainstream system'.
Thus all these statements on inclusion make it clear that 'Inclusion means enabling pupils to participate in life and work of mainstream institutions to the best of their abilities, whatever their needs.' It implies that schools, work and any places need to enable pupils to function to the best of their abilities. In other words, the environments and people have to change in our society in order to enable all pupils to meet their needs.
While there can be no doubt that the statement above clearly describes the responsibilities and actions of schools or society, considerable doubt remains whether inclusion itself works properly at schools, I, therefore, would like to highlight several issues and dilemmas in inclusion.
Firstly, Mary Kettle (2004) cited a comment by Florian, who said, 'There has been some resistance from teachers who worry that they do not have enough skills to teach with learning difficulties or children with emotional and behavioural difficulties and are concerned about the impact inclusion will have on other typically developing pupils in their classes.' She also added 'The children with severe difficulties may be worse off because they will not get the specialist teaching they have received in the past nor the small classes that typically populate special schools.' These citations raise an issue relating to the lack of suitable trained teachers in mainstream schools. She gave the reason as 'inclusion has moved quickly, before the mainstream schools and teachers had enough time to adapt.' Does it follow from this that having time on training teachers could be a solution to make schools move on inclusion much further?
Secondly, in terms of teachings, the curriculum is an unavoidable topic. Kettle(2004) described as:
On the one hand it is a powerful enactment of the common humanity of all children and their rightful entitlement to the same curriculum. On the other hand, a 'one-curriculum approach' may be inhibiting for some groups of children if it prevents time being spent on training for essential life skills or complementary teaching approaches and therapies that are known to be beneficial.
As every child has different needs, each educational programme should be made for them. This current curriculum, however, is not seemed to work properly, because if schools educate a diverse range of learners in one class, a variety of teaching approaches need to be considered. Sometimes it means to have more additional staff to support the child with SEN in the class. It causes a different issue.
Thirdly, as I mentioned above, having additional, suitable qualified staff is vital to support the child with SEN in the class. There is a further point relating to resourcing. In the past, special schools were entirely funded from LEAs. Under the current provision, the 80 percent of the LEAs budget is directly spread to schools. Therefore only 20 percent of budget can be used to support advisory and fund provision for pupils with statements of SEN. Even schools receive the budget, it tends to be spent on employing teaching assistants. It is obvious that schools need not only to employ staff, but also train teachers and change facilities in their premises in order to meet the needs of children. This indicates that, currently, funding is an important issue to promote inclusion forward at this moment. Thomas and Loxley (2001) clearly emphasised this point, stating that 'the single funding pot is having to support both systems simultaneously resulting in crises of funding, training and resourcing.'
Furthermore, another issue and dilemma relates to whether the support should be given 'in' or 'out' of the classroom. In my experience working with EAL (English as an Additional Language) children, in terms of inclusion, they should have always been provided with appropriate support in the class. As Thomas and Loxley (2001) pointed out, 'the central idea motivating most sympathetic commentators on inclusion is that children who are at a disadvantage for any reason are not excluded from mainstream education'. They also noted that 'those usually specifically excluded are children whose first language is not English.' By contrast, Kettle(2004) stated that 'Some teachers still feel that pupils would benefit from the kind of focused one-to-one support that could be provided outside the classroom.' I know that the support which I have given the children could be problematic as an inclusive ideology, it is clear that some children feel very scared in the new environment when they come to England for the first time, and they feel more secured out of the classroom. This would indicate that segregated support could work effectively in some instances. I have been torn between the ideology and the practical issues and most teachers and teaching assistants feel the same dilemmas.
Reflection on these above will make clear that the road toward inclusion is not smooth. It should be carried out not only in schools but also in our society, that is to say 'the environments'.
The environments should include all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. This includes disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children from linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities and children from disadvantaged or marginalized areas or groups. (UNESCO 1994)
The above statement is cited from the Salamanca Statement, and this is the important factor to promote inclusion in the world. I have been talking about inclusion in schools above, but these are not only the place to think about the topic. As the statement expresses, there are pupils who cannot go to schools or work in the world. In order to change these conditions we must make our environment change. Sometimes this is expressed as making "reasonable adjustments" to meet every child needs. This could include changes to buildings, working hours, trainings, support workers and so on. Also we need to have better acceptance of disability in society and people working together to help one another.
This is emphasised on the well-known quotation from Every Child Matters: Change for Children:
The government's aim is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to: Be Healthy, Stay safe, Enjoy and achieve, Make a positive contribution and Achieve economic well-being. (DCSF 2004).
To achieve this, we have to educate parents, especially mothers in the society, in order to make safer places for children and to prevent such miserable incidents as child abuse. In addition to educating parent, the local authorities and communities need to be involved. Taking these action will not achieve instantaneous results, since it will take a long time to produce improvements. It is like grass-roots movement, but the important thing is never give up for our children. This is expressed best by UNESCO:
Comprehensive early childhood care and education programmes improve children’s well being, prepare them for primary school and give them a better chance of succeeding once they are in school. All evidence shows that the most disadvantaged and vulnerable children benefit most from such programmes. Ensuring that adults, particularly mothers, are literate has an impact on whether their children, and especially their daughters attend school. Linking inclusion to broader development goals will contribute to the reform of education systems, to poverty alleviation and to the achievement of all the Millennium Development Goals. An inclusive system benefits all learners without any discrimination towards any individual or group. It is founded on values of democracy, tolerance and respect for difference.
I would like to conclude with one quotation:
The ultimate goal of inclusive quality education is to end all forms of discrimination and foster social cohesion.' (UNESCO 2009)
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ひょえ~!i-229スゴすぎてなんのことやらさっぱりわかりませんが(笑)、がんばったんだね!!!
もう何十年も勉強なんてしていない私にはhaykichiちゃんがまぶしいわーi-80
  1. 2011/02/10(Thu) 17:25:09 |
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Re: タイトルなし

ぴっちさん。

はい、がんばりました・・・。結果うんぬんより、知らなかったことやうろ覚えでしかなかったことを学ぶことができたので、よしとしようって感じです。
ぴっちさんの映画や本にかける心意気の方が、わたしからしてみたら「すごい!」です(笑)。
  1. 2011/02/11(Fri) 04:50:41 |
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